Prostate Cancer occurs in the prostate, the glandular organ present in the male reproductive system which produces semen-like fluid that protects and transports the sperm. The prostate surrounds another organ of the reproductive system, called urethra which carries the urine from the kidney. Prostate Cancer is one of one most common cancers that occur in men. Prostate Cancer progresses slowly over time, that's why it is often detected in the advanced stages. However, it can spread out quickly to other body parts and get aggressive. Hence, prostate cancer treatment is needed.
The exact cause of Prostate Cancer is not exactly known, however, several DNA mutations cause damage to cells and continue to spread out at a rapid rate, killing other healthy cells too. The risks factors that can trigger the growth of cancer cells in the prostate. They are:
• Age: Prostate Cancer is commonly diagnosed in men above 60 years of age.
• Ethnicity: African American Men are more vulnerable to develop Prostate Cancer than any other race.
• Hereditary: If a man has his first-degree relative having a history of Prostate Cancer, there are high chances he may develop it.
• Obesity: Obese men are more likely to be the victim of Prostate Cancer.
• Sexual Infection: Sexually transmitted diseases increase the risk of Prostate Cancer.
• Chemical Exposure: Men with exposure to carcinogenic chemicals like Cadmium are a high risk of DNA mutations leading to Prostate Cancer.
• Vitamin E and Vitamin C: These two vitamins have been found to fail to prevent Prostate Cancer.
Early signs of Prostate Cancer are not usually observed. It is only when cancer starts getting aggressive leading to improper functioning of the prostate, such as a blockage in the urinary passage, that more symptoms of Prostate Cancer come to light. Here are the few Prostate Cancer symptoms:
• Frequent Urination.
• Blood in urine
• Painful Ejaculation
• Weight loss
• Bone Pain
• Bladder Obstruction
• Swelling in legs or pelvic area
Prostate Cancer Stages are classified according to the extent and size of the tumor (extent of metastatic prostate cancer). Cancer starts from stage 0 where the tumor cells have not spread out of the prostate, deep into in and the other organs.
While the last stage, stage 4 Prostate Cancer is defined as critical, dangerous ad cancer has spread to neighbouring organs too, making the condition very serious.
The cell where the Prostate Cancer started is named as the type of Prostate Cancer which may be caused in the patient. Here are the different types of Prostate Cancer:
• Acinar adenocarcinoma: Adenocarcinomas cancers are present in the lining of the prostate gland. These types of Prostate Cancer are the most kind of prostate cancer in men.
• Ductal Adenocarcinoma: This type of Prostate Cancer also start from the lining of the prostate, however, they tend to spread out quicker than Acinar Adenocarcinomas cancers
• Transitional cell (or urothelial) cancer: This type of Prostate Cancer starts in the lining of the tube via which the urine travels to the urethra for disposal. The cells are therefore present in the bladder, which later spread out towards the prostate area.
• Squamous cell cancer: Squamous cell cancers constitute tumors originating from flat cells covering the prostate. They also tend to grow quickly.
• Small cell prostate cancer: Small cell prostate cancer has been given the name by small round cells, which give rise to neuroendocrine cancer.
There are several types of prostate cancer treatment options, each treatment is highly subject to age, stage and size of cancer. Here are the different prostate cancer treatment options:
• Prostate Cancer Surgery: The Prostate Cancer Surgery, also called as Radical prostatectomy one of the prostate cancer treatment options, where the prostate is surgically removed. The recovery time for the Prostate Cancer Surgery is about 3-4 months.
• Brachytherapy: In this method of Prostate Cancer Treatment, radioactive seeds are used as a cure where they are implanted into the prostate so that radiation therapy only targets the cancer cells in this body part.
• Conformal radiation therapy: Here, the radiation beams are projected on the body in a particular shape which is similar to the cancer region, so that only that part of the body is exposed to the harmful radiation, thereby preserving other healthy tissues of the body. In Intensity-modulated radiation therapy, more powerful beams of radiation are used.
• Chemotherapy: At advanced Prostate Cancer stage, Chemotherapy is chosen as the prostate cancer treatment, where strong drugs are administered either orally or via injection may be recommended, as it can kill cancer cells around the body.
• Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) or Androgen Suppression Therapy, is hormone therapy to suppress the action of the male hormone, androgen. Androgen is believed to stimulate cancer growth. Thus by suppressing androgen levels in the male body, the prostate cancer stops growing. This method of Prostate Cancer, Treatment is also used for advanced Prostate Cancer stage.
For men, the 5-year prostate cancer survival rate is almost 100%. Whereas the prostate cancer survival rate after 10 and 15 years is 98% and 96% respectively.