Breast Cancer Treatment is done to cure Breast cancer, which is counted as one of the most common and most invasive kind cancers present worldwide in women and the leading cause of death of women. As the terminology states, Breast cancer develops in the breast cells whose growth is regulated due to several mutations occurring in the genes and multiplying at an exponential rate. This leads to the formation of tumor.
In Breast cancer, the cancer is present in lobules, which are the milk-producing glands in the women breast or in the ducts of the breast, which are tube-like structure taking the milk produced from the glands to the nipple. Breast Cancer can also be present in the fatty tissue of the breast or the fibrous connective tissue within your breast. Breast Cancer is most prevalent amongst women, however, anyone with breast tissue can suffer from breast cancer. Therefore, men are susceptible to breast cancer cases, but in extremely rare cases.
A tumor is present as a result of the accumulation of cancer cells which grow as a result of DNA mutation of these “once upon a time” healthy cells. Mutations progress and develop over time. Other mutations are caused due to inherent reasons and environmental exposure. The exact cause may sometimes may not be clear, however several risks trigger the growth of cancer cells leading to breast cancer. They are:
• Gender and Age: The chances of breast cancer in women are high, especially with women in late 40's and early 50's.
• Hereditary: If an immediate family person, especially blood relation has had a history of breast cancer, chances are it would be passed on.
• Defects in Gene: Women with defects in their BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes are more vulnerable to breast cancer. The probability of them getting breast cancer is as high as 65%.
• Dense Breast Tissue: Chances of breast cancer developing in women is higher with a higher density of breast tissue
• Ethnicity: It has been observed that white women are more vulnerable to breast cancer Asian, Hispanic, and African American women. However, African American women develop breast cancer at a relatively younger age and have a greater chance of death than American women.
• Hormones: Women who had their menstrual periods started before the age of 12 and also women with late menopause (after 55) have a greater risk of getting breast cancer.
• Weight: Women who are obese after menopause have a higher risk of breast cancer due to the higher discharge of estrogen.
There are not many noticeable symptoms of Breast Cancer in the early stages which can be seen. However, in later stages. most Breast Cancer symptoms are observed in the form of change in the shape and size of the breast. However, the kinds and the magnitude of these symptoms vary from one woman to another. Here are the most common signs of breast cancer in women.
• A lump in the breast or armpit, which can be present with or without pain.
• Discharge from the nipples
• Change in the shape and size of the breast, such as swelling, shrinkage
• Dimpling or redness of the breast skin. Most commonly present with an orange peel appearance
• Flattening or inverting nipples
• Sore nipple(s)
• Swollen lymph nodes
There are various types of breast cancer. Some are common, while there are also combinations of cancers. Some of the most common types of cancer are as follows:
• Ductal carcinoma in situ: The cells lining the duct line change and become cancerous. DCIS is non-invasive breast cancer and can be cured to a great extent if detected early.
• Invasive ductal carcinoma: This is the most common form of breast cancer which starts in a duct of the breast and invading the surrounding tissue. Stats show that about 80% of invasive breast cancers are invasive ductal carcinoma.
• Invasive lobular carcinoma: This type of breast cancer develops in the lobules. These are not as common as invasive ductal carcinoma. Only 10% of invasive breast cancers are invasive lobular carcinoma.
There are several kinds of Breast cancer treatment that are present which are chosen, alone or in combination. They depend on the type & stage of breast cancer, age, personal preferences and sensitivity towards certain hormones. Here are the most common forms of breast cancer treatment that are either in the form of breast cancer surgery or radiotherapy or chemotherapy.
• Lumpectomy is the most common form of breast cancer surgery which is successfully able to preserve the breast. It is commonly performed on patients with early stages of breast cancer. The surgeon cuts through the breast area to remove the tumor as well as some part of breast tissue. The cut is then sealed with stitches or sutures.
• A mastectomy is another breast cancer surgery where the full breast is removed as a result of heavy tumor present. In some cases, the skin may be preserved while only the nipple is removed.
• Chemotherapy is another common form of breast cancer treatment which is done over several weeks via administration of drugs via several kinds of injections to kill the cancer cells: drugs intravenously (IV), intra-arterially (IA), or via intraperitoneal (IP)
• Radiotherapy is a breast cancer treatment that uses radiation in the diseased area. This also requires several weeks to make the treatment effective.
• Targeted drug therapy includes administering the patient with a number of drugs that will particularly hit the cancer cells and its constituents. The treatment is usually performed in combination with chemotherapy.
The breast cancer treatment and early diagnosis usually give the women a Breast cancer survival rate of 100% since it is not very severe. However, the Breast cancer survival rate at later stages such as stage 4 is 22% after surviving for about 4-5 years.
India has now become a hub of most medical treatment owing to the top-notch cancer surgeons along with the premium hospitals and the amenities. The treatment is cost-effective in comparison to the much expensive treatment in countries like USA, UK, Australia.