Kidney Transplant

Kidney Transplant


Best Kidney Transplant Surgery In India

A kidney transplant is a surgery carried out to transplant a healthy kidney to take over the work of one of the two kidneys whose function has declined to a certain level and in most cases, where the kidneys have totally failed to work.The reason for kidney failure is when the patient possesses End-stage renal disease (ERSD) which cannot be treated with drugs (which is the conventional method of treatment). Dialysis and kidney transplant are the only treatments for this condition. The frequency of an end-stage renal disease worldwide has tripled in the last 20 years. To make it worse, every year, the numbers of people having the end-stage renal ailment somewhat outweigh the kidney transplant donors. Thus, the waiting list continues to grow.

What happens during a Kidney Transplant Surgery?

The kidney transplant surgery is performed under general anaesthesia and the surgery usually takes 2-4 hours to finish. During a kidney transplant, the surgeon places the new kidney in the patient's lower abdomen. The artery and veins of the new kidney are connected to the patient's artery and veins. As soon as your blood starts flowing through it, the new kidney starts passing urine. However, this could take a few weeks in order for the new kidney to restore its functions in a new body. The recovery time is usually 7-10 days post day the surgery.

NOTE: The original kidneys are not usually removed post the kidney transplant until and unless they cause severe health problems such as severe high blood pressure, kidney infections or kidney enlargement.

PRE TRANSPLANT WORK-UP FOR RECIPIENT

1) Blood Tests:

  • Blood typing and screening
  • CBC with ESR
  • KFT extended
  • LFT
  • Lipid profile
  • PSA( if applicable)
  • PT/APTT
  • FBS/PP
  • HbA1c
  • HbSAg
  • HIV
  • HCV
  • HCV RNA Qualitative
  • TSH,T3,T4
  • CMV IgG and IgM
  • X-ray Pelvis AP
  • CDC T & B cross matching
  • Flow cross match
  • HLA typing for organ transplant

2) Urine tests: 

  • Urine r/m
  • Urine c/s

3) Radiology Tests:

  • ECG
  • 2D Echo/Dobutamin stress Echo (>40years)
  • Chest X-ray PA view
  • USG Whole abdomen/Pelvis
  • USG colour Doppler pelvic arteries and veins

4) Clearance for kidney transplant:

  • Gynecology clearance (if applicable)
  • Cardiology clearance
  • Psychiatric clearance
  • PAC Clearance
  • Blood Donation

What are the requirements for a kidney transplant surgery?

Patient requirements:

The patient needs to have a blood group compatible healthy kidney donor from family. In case they do not have blood group compatible donor, patient may need to undergo Plasmapheresis therapy before kidney transplant.

Donor requirements:

Donor should be between 18 to 65 years of age.
The donor and recipient will have to undergo detailed tests, which could take 4-5 days (depending on what is found on investigations), prior to transplantation.

Document requirements:

1) The embassy in Delhi will certify all the proofs of certificates and documents of relationship between the donor and the recipient. Transplantation can be done only after the government authorization committee approves the donor.
2) Documentary evidence of relationship e.g., relevant birth certificates and marriage certificate.
Documentary evidence of identity and residence of the proposed donor e.g. Passport or Driving License and Bank Account and family photograph depicting the proposed donor and the proposed recipient along with another near relative.
3) Donor's first relative should be available before the renal transplantation committee meeting to give consent.  In case the donor is married then the spouse has to be present as an attendant. In case the donor is unmarried then the father, mother, real brother or sister has to be present as an attendant.
4) Patient and the Donor should come on the Medical Visa.

Kidney Transplant Donor

Kidney Transplant donors play the frontmost role in the entire kidney transplant process. The entire kidney transplant surgery is subject to the quality of the kidney received by a donor that will be transplanted in the patient's body to replace the failed kidney.
Kidney transplant donors can be of two types:

Living Donor

This could include the patient's family members, including brothers, sisters, parents, children (only above 18 years), cousins, or a spouse or close friend may wish to donate a kidney. That person is called a "living donor."
However, the living Kidney transplant donor needs to meet a certain medical health bar in order to qualify for kidney donation. A living donor ideally should have excellent health, good information about kidney transplant surgery, and the ability to give informed consent.

Deceased Donor

A deceased donor is the one who had volunteered to donate his/her kidney before dying a Brain Death. Certain kidney organizations conduct kidney donation at the time of death that could be used for a kidney transplant and also permit families to take such decisions. After permission for donation is granted, the kidneys are removed and stored until a recipient has been selected.

PRE TRANSPLANT WORK-UP FOR DONOR

1. Blood Tests:

Blood grouping
CBC with ESR
RFT extended
LFT
Lipid profile
PSA( if applicable)
PT/APTT
FBS/PP
HbA1c
HbSAg
HIV
HCV
CMV IgG and IgM
TSH,T3,T4
HLA Typing for organ transplant

2. Urine tests:

Urine r/m
Urine c/s
24 hrs urine for creatinine/protein

3. Radiology Tests:

ECG
2D Echo/Stress Echo(>40years)
Chest X-ray PA view
USG Whole abdomen/Pelvis
DTPA Renal scan
CT-Renal angiogram

4. Clearance for kidney transplant:

Gynecology clearance (if applicable)
Psychiatry clearance
Cardiology clearance
PAC Clearance
Blood Donation

Rcommended doctors for kidney transplant surgery in India

CureIndia helps you choose the right doctor for your medical treatment. Most of the doctors in our associated hospitals have been internationally trained and are active members of many international medical councils and associations. Let's hear from some of the most reputed dcotor's for Kidney Transplant Surgery in India.

Post Kidney Transplant Surgery

Kidney Transplant surgery is one of the most delicate surgeries pertaining to the human body. After the kidney transplant, intensive care needs to be taken for the new kidney to function in full order. Post Kidney Transplant surgery, the patient would be expected to:

Spend some days (or even weeks) to be under the Doctor's supervision
Have frequent medical check-ups done during the recovery time
Stick to concerned medication throughout life

FAQ's about Kidney Transplant Surgery

What is a “preemptive” or “early” transplant?

Getting a transplant before you need to start dialysis is called a preemptive transplant.  It allows you to avoid dialysis altogether.  Getting a transplant not long after kidneys fail (but with some time on dialysis) is referred to as an early transplant. Both have benefits.  Some research shows that a pre-emptive or early transplant, with little or no time spent on dialysis, can lead to better long-term health.  It may also allow you to keep working, save time and money, and have a better quality of life.

What if my body tries to reject the new kidney?

A rejection episode may not have any clear signs or symptoms. That is why it is so important to have regular blood tests to check how well your kidney is working. Things you might notice that can let you know you are having  rejection are fevers, decreased urine output, swelling, weight gain, and pain over your kidney. But even if a rejection episode happens, there are many ways to treat it so you do not lose your transplant.  Letting your transplant team know right away that you think you have symptoms of rejection is very important.
For most people, rejection can be stopped with special anti-rejection medicines. It’s very important to have regular checkups to see how well your kidney is working, and make sure you are not having rejection.

When can I return to work?

How soon you can return to work depends on your recovery, the kind of work you do, and your other medical conditions. In most cases the petient can return to work eight weeks or more after their transplant.  Your doctor will help you decide when you can go back to work.

Will my sex life be affected?

In case of a man:

Men who have had a kidney transplant have fathered healthy children, and women with kidney transplants have had successful pregnancies. It’s best to talk to your surgeon when considering having a child. 

In case of a woman:

Women should avoid becoming pregnant too soon after a transplant.  It is advised for women to wait a year or more.  All pregnancies must be planned. Certain medications that can harm a developing baby must be stopped six weeks before trying to get pregnant. Birth control counseling may be helpful. It’s important to protect yourself against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Be sure to use protection during sexual activity.

Signs and Symptoms of End-Stage Renal Disease

The signs and symptoms of the end-stage renal disease may vary widely, owing to the severity of the patient's medical condition. Here are some of the most common symptoms to identify with End Stage Renal Disease :
•    Early, mild symptoms are hardly visible sometimes because of the kidney somehow compensates for the mild impairment or attack on its function.
•    Fluid Retention: Swelling, Puffiness of arms and legs.
•    Shortness of breath as a result of fluid collection is lungs (the condition is called pulmonary edema)
•    Sometimes, fluid dehydration/deficiency can also cause kidney failure.
•    Thirst, Rapid Heart Rate.

Functions of Kidney

The kidney serves some of the most important functions accountable for the survival of any ordinary human being. If the kidney fails to work, the chances of livelihood of the person drop drastically, which could lead to a patient's death. The vital functions that the human kidney serves are:
•    Filtration of wastes from the bloodstream.
•    Maintaining the balance of electrolytes in the body.
•    Regulation of blood pressure by releasing several hormones.
•    Removal of chemical toxins from the body.
•    Eliminating excess water from the body in form of urine.
•    Stimulation of production of red blood cells by releasing the hormone erythropoietin.

Common Causes of End-Stage Renal Disease

There are various conditions that can lead to End-Stage Renal Disease, the primary ones being :
•    Diabetes mellitus ( Type I or II)
•    High blood pressure
•    Glomerulonephritis
•    Polycystic Kidney Disease
•    Severe anatomical problems of the urinary tract
•    Liver disease or Liver failure.
•    Sickle Cell Anemia 
•    Heart Disease or Heart Attack

Kidney Transplant Risks and Complications

Complications can occur with any surgery. The following complications post a kidney transplant surgery does not generally occur but may include:
•    Bleeding, infection, or wound healing problems.
•    Minor leakage from the tube (ureter) that links the kidney to the bladder
•    The flow of urine from the kidney.

Best Kidney Transplant Surgery in India

The medical proficiency of Transplant Surgeons in India is almost second to none. The amenities at the Super Speciality Hospitals in India are highly acclaimed by patients worldwide. In India, almost every super speciality hospital performs kidney transplant surgery. CureIndia is conntected with all the top hospitals accross India for affodable kidney transplant surgery. CureIndia provides exceptional medical assistance to the international as well as domestic patients and hence it is amongst the best healthcare companies in India.