A kidney stone is a urologic disorder which is a very painful condition, and which is frequently diagnosed among humans. Kidney stones is a disorder of the urinary tract which occurs commonly. Each year, on an average of 3 million people are diagnosed with kidney stone problems.
Usually, the kidney stones are composed of calcium oxalate and may also consist of several other compounds. Kidney stones may grow up to as big as the size of a golf ball and may also possess a sharp, crystalline structure. In some cases, the stones may not cause a problem as they can be small and can pass through the urinary tract. In other cases where the kidney stones are big, they may cause severe pain while leaving the body.
A kidney stone may not show any symptoms at all until it moves around the kidney or passes into the ureter. After that the symptoms of kidney stones start showing up which commonly include:
• extreme pain in the groin and at the sides
• blood in urine
• vomiting and nausea
• presence of pus or white blood cells in the urine
• Lesser urination in quantity
• Burning or inflammation during urination
• Frequent urge to urinate
• Infection that may cause fever and chills
Kidney stones often do not have a single or defined cause, but several factors may increase the risk of getting a kidney stone. Kidney stones are formed if your urine consists of more crystal-forming substances like calcium, oxalate and uric acid. The fluid present in the urine is not able to dilute these heavy substances. The urine may also lack substances which prevent the sticking together of these crystals. Thus, these conditions make it ideal for the formation of kidney stones.
There are several risk factors which may increase the chance of developing kidney stones are:
• Family or personal history of possessing kidney stones
• Dehydration, less intake of water
• Follow up with unhealthy lifestyles and eating habit
• Being overweight
• Digestive ailments and surgery.
• Other medical conditions.
Knowing the type of kidney stone may help in determining its cause and may give a fair idea on reducing the risk of getting more kidney stones in the future. The different types of kidney stones include:
• Calcium stones: Most kidney stones are made of calcium or more usually calcium oxalate. Oxalate is a substance that occurs naturally in food and is also synthesized by your liver.
• Struvite stones: Struvite stones are formed as a response to a urinary tract infection. Struvite stone grows at a fast speed and can expand over time.
• Uric acid stones: Uric acid stones are most commonly formed in people who have a lesser intake of fluids or who may lose too much fluid.
• Cystine stone: Cystine stones are formed in people who possess a hereditary disorder in which the kidneys to excrete too much of certain amino acids.
There are several procedures for getting a kidney stone removed. While some treatments consist of giving medicines and other non-surgical treatments for the removal of the smaller size of the kidney stones, larger kidney stones may need a surgery to be completely removed so that they do not cause any more problems. The different types of kidney stone surgery procedures are:
• Shockwave Lithotripsy: In this kind of kidney stone surgery, an X-ray or ultrasound is used to locate the stone in the kidney. After locating the stone's exact location, high-energy shock waves are aimed at the kidney externally which go through the skin and the stone breaks up into small pieces.
• Ureteroscopy: Ureteroscopy is used to treat stones present in the kidneys as well as ureters. A thin, flexible scope is used to locate and remove stones. It is a minimally invasive procedure and no incisions. However, the doctor injects anaesthesia and you may sleep through the procedure.
• Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy or Percutaneous Nephrolithotripsy (PCNL): Sometimes lithotripsy is not able to break a stone if it is really big. Therefore, PCNL surgery is chosen as the best procedure for such cases. In PCNL, the doctor uses a small tube which reaches the stone and breaks it with high-frequency sound waves. PCNL surgery can be done in two ways:
• Nephrolithotomy: The doctor will use a tube to remove the stone
• Nephrolithotripsy: The doctor will use sound waves or a laser so that the stone fragments into smaller pieces and later a suction machine is used to vacuum up the pieces.
India has not only the largest but one of the most experienced doctors for kidney stone surgery in India. The staff with excellent medical expertise, healthcare facilities and cost-effective procedure makes India a good choice for kidney stone surgery.