Osteosarcoma or Soft Tissue Sarcoma

Osteosarcoma or Soft Tissue Sarcoma

Osteosarcoma- Causes, Types, Symptoms & Treatment in India

What is Osteosarcoma?

Osteosarcoma (soft tissue sarcoma) is a form of cancer that leads to immature bones. Cancer occurs when cells in a particular region of the body start to multiply out of control. Cancer can slowly spread to the other regions of the body, eventually leading to death. It originates in the cells that create bones, and usually manifests itself around the knee, at the end of the long femur bone. This crippling bone disease is more commonly found in males than females, and people under the age of 25 are more susceptible to it.

Osteosarcoma is one of the most common types of cancer that affects the bones. A tumor develops around the bones, where the cancer cells resemble underdeveloped bone cells. However, in osteosarcoma, the bones tissue is weaker than that of healthy bones. According to the appearance of the cancer cells, doctors have divided osteosarcoma into three types:

1.    High-Grade Osteosarcoma: Here, the cancer cells have an unusual appearance and usually grow and multiply faster. This is the most common type of Osteosarcoma ( soft tissue sarcoma )found in teens and children.

2.    Low-Grade Osteosarcoma: This type of osteosarcoma is difficult to detect since it resembles healthy bone cells. It spreads more slowly than the high-grade variety.

3.    Intermediate-grade Osteosarcoma: This rare type of osteosarcoma is between high and low-grade cancer.

Causes of Osteosarcoma (soft tissue sarcoma)

Doctors and scientists are not clear regarding what causes Osteosarcoma, but it is known to be caused by an error in the patient's DNA or genetic code. The DNA contains a certain coding that makes the cell behave the way it does. The error in the DNA causes the cells to make more tissues than what is needed, and this leads to a tumor. Osteosarcoma (soft tissue sarcoma) is most likely to occur in teenagers who are experiencing a growth spurt. 

Doctors have also stated that taller kids are at a higher risk for developing this form of cancer and that there may be a relationship between the speed of growth and the development of the tumor. Cancer affected cells attempt to make new bone that is not required. If left untreated, cancer slowly spreads to other regions of the body and distant organs. When the cells break away from the point of origin and start spreading, metastasis is said to have occurred.

Another rare form of sarcoma is radiation-induced osteosarcoma, which may occur while an individual is being treated for another form of cancer using radiation therapy. But this is quite rare and occurs in less than 5% of the cases.

Risk Factors for Osteosarcoma

A risk factor is anything that increases your chances of developing a disease like cancer. There are many risk factors for cancer that are related to lifestyle, such as physical activity, diet, tobacco use, bodyweight, etc. But no concrete link has been found between lifestyle factors and osteogenic osteosarcoma. However, there are some factors to take into consideration.

Teenagers suffering from growth-spurts fall in the high-risk group, as well as kids who are tall for their age. Younger children who have undergone radiation therapy previously for cancer treatment are susceptible to radiation-induced osteosarcoma, which is a rare variety of the disease. Osteosarcoma may also be caused by the presence of some other benign bone disease.

There are a few inherited disorders that place a person in a high-risk group. These include the Rothmund-Thompson syndrome, which is a genetic disorder leading to rashes, short height, skeletal problems, and an increased chance of getting osteosarcoma. The Li-Fraumeni syndrome is another inherited syndrome which exposes an individual to multiple forms of cancer, due to the mutation of a tumor-suppressor gene. Retinoblastoma, which is a type of cancer affecting the eye of young children, may also expose an individual to Osteosarcoma ( soft tissue sarcoma ).

Symptoms of Osteosarcoma (soft tissue sarcoma)

The first signs of osteogenic sarcoma are swelling and pain in the bone, which gets worse at nighttime. If the tumor is in the knee or anywhere in the leg, a slight limp during walking may be noticed. The symptoms may come and go if the cancer is in the early stages, and may be confused with growth pains experienced by children and teenagers. 

Sometimes osteosarcoma may be detected through other symptoms such as a bump near the bone joint, which indicates the location of the tumor. A little reddening of the skin and a warm sensation may be noticed at the spot. The patient may also suffer from anemia, exhaustion, and fever. Sudden weight loss may also be noticed in osteosarcoma (soft tissue sarcoma).

Treatment available in India for Osteosarcoma (soft tissue sarcoma)

If you start noticing the signs and symptoms of Osteosarcoma (soft tissue sarcoma), you should immediately make an appointment with a doctor. The doctor may refer you to a specialist if he suspects that you have bone cancer. The specialist team of doctors may include oncologists who treat cancer using medications and chemotherapy, pathologists who collect a sample of the tissue and test it to determine the type of cancer, radiation oncologists who treat cancer using radiation, and orthopaedic oncologists who operate on cancer-related to the bones.
India has some of the best treatment options available for osteogenic sarcoma. Furthermore, the cost of treatment is much less in India than in western countries, so you can enjoy a quality treatment by spending much less. Treatment for bone cancer in India is done by oncologists who have International Board Certification and International fellowship. So with such credentials to their names, you will be in good hands.

Indian doctors are known for their professionalism and efficiency and every year people from other countries come to India seeking treatment for Osteosarcoma (soft tissue sarcoma). Government hospitals in India offer treatment for nominal fees, so even after considering the travel expense, you can save a lot of money for your cancer treatment which might continue for years. If you are looking for affordable cancer treatment in India, you can visit hospitals like Fortis, BLK, Artemis, and Medanta.

Success Rate of Osteosarcoma (soft tissue sarcoma)

The success rate for Osteosarcoma (soft tissue sarcoma) treatment depends on the stage the cancer is in. Earlier stages have higher success rates since the cancer is localized and can be treated more easily. A survey conducted in one location revealed that patients with high-grade osteosarcoma have a 70% chance of surviving the disease. The survival rate is lower for people whose tumors don't respond to chemotherapy and for whom the disease has spread beyond the point of origin.

When measuring the success rate for cancer treatment, doctors use a 5-year relative survival rate. It compares people having the same type of cancer to healthy people. Based on data collected from osteosarcoma patients between 2009 and 2015, the 5-year survival rate for localized osteosarcoma is 77%. The survival rates for the distant and regional varieties are 27% and 64% respectively. All stages combined, treatments on patients were found to have a success rate of 60%.

Osteosarcoma is a crippling disease that requires immediate attention, and India offers world-class and affordable treatment options when it comes to this condition.