Hysteroscopic Polypectomy

Hysteroscopic Polypectomy

Why Hysteroscopic Polypectomy is carried out?

A hysteroscopy is a medical procedure which is done to diagnose and effectively treat problems related to a woman's uterus. The Hysteroscopic Polypectomy involves a medical procedure in which a doctor uses equipment called hysteroscope having a small camera on one end which is inserted into your uterus to diagnose and treat the problem the presence of the polyps. In Hysteroscopic Polypectomy, the doctor surgically removes the uterine polyps which are are small, elongated and non-cancerous tumour cells growing on the cervix, which is the narrow passage present at the bottom of the uterus, extending through the vagina. An endometrial polyp is the one that grows from the endometrium, which a tissue that lies inside the uterus. Endometrial polyps develop and grow inside the uterine cavity. On the other hand, a cervical polyp constitutes of the epithelial cells that lie inside the cervix and can be observed outside the uterus at the tips of the cervix. For this endometrial polypectomy is performed. Uterine polyps occur most commonly in women aged between 40-55, and who have had more than 1 case of pregnancy. Women who do not have menstruation carry lesser risks of development of uterine polyps. Uterine polyps are more commonly bound to develop during pregnancy. This is because, during pregnancy, the level of the hormone estrogen increases in the body. Thus Hysteroscopic Polypectomy is the perfect procedure to remove them. However, these polyps are usually benign or do not cause cancers, like cervical cancer. Most cervical cancers are caused due to human papillomavirus (HPV), which also causes genital warts.

What causes the formation of Uterine Polyps?

It can not be fully comprehended by the medical research done to date as to why cervical polyps occur. However, there are several factors which can trigger the formation of these polyps and are linked to their growth. They are:
•    Increased levels of the female hormone, estrogen: During pregnancy, the estrogen level is a female's body is exceptionally high. Another case of high level of estrogen is found in women who are approaching menopause. That is why uterine polyps are the most common in pregnant women and women in the late '40s and '50s.
•    Inflammation in the cervix, vagina, or uterus: Inflammation is the cervix can is another cause for polyp formation. Inflammation in the cervix can occur as a result of:
1.    bacterial infection
2.    HPV infection, which can also cause warts
3.    herpes
4.    yeast infections
5.    pregnancy
6.    miscarriage
7.    abortion
8.    hormonal changes
•    Presence of clogged blood vessels: Due to the presence of clogged blood vessels, sometimes the bundle results in a tight kind of a polyp that may be removed via Hysteroscopic Polypectomy.

Symptoms of Uterine Polyps

Polyps that grow on the uterus or cervix may not have very noticeable side effects. If you get a heavy white or yellow discharge from your vagina or exceptionally heavy bleeding during the menstrual cycle, you should consult a gynaecologist at the earliest. Sometimes the symptoms of uterine polyps can represent the onset of cervical cancer. Therefore, getting them removed via  Hysteroscopic Polypectomy at the earliest is highly recommended.

Benefits of Hysteroscopic Polypectomy

There some quality advantages of getting a Hysteroscopic Polypectomy done. 
•    Hysteroscopic Polypectomy does not take a lot of time and you can be discharged the same day.
•    Hysteroscopic Polypectomy is also used to curb the symptoms of cervical cancer.
•    Hysteroscopic Polypectomy is a minimally invasive procedure and doesn't cause any major cuts or stitches.

Hysteroscopic Polypectomy Procedure

Women who do not plan to get pregnant ahead in their lifetime and do not suffer from irregular or heavy bleeding due to presence of the endometrial polyps are generally a good candidate for endometrial polypectomy. Your gynecologist first proceeds by injecting general anesthesia to induce numbness which will ensure a painless procedure as the polyps will be removed. For small polyps, only local anesthesia is injected. The hysteroscope, which is a thin and light tube attached to a camera is inserted to examine the cervix and inside of the uterus. 
Along with hysteroscope, a salt solution ( containing NACL) or a sugar solution (containing Sorbitol) is used to dilate the uterus to gather a better access and vision of the uterus cavity where the polyps are present. After the uterine cavity is diagnosed and deeply inspected, the gynecologist use several surgical tools which are inserted through the hysteroscope in order to target the to the uterine fibroids, heavy menstrual bleeding and polyps, which completes the Hysteroscopic Polypectomy procedure.

Hysteroscopic Polypectomy Complications

Hysteroscopic Polypectomy is a minimally invasive procedure that doesn't cause any serious injuries or wounds due to the incisions. However, because there is a still a surgery done via small incisions, there can be some risks and complications of Hysteroscopic Polypectomy like:
•    infection 
•    scarred uterus
•    allergic reaction to anaesthesia
•    bleeding 
•    fever
•    chills in the body
•    pain