Cystectomy is a surgical technique and procedure which is used to remove the ovarian cysts with techniques like laparoscopy, or an open surgery. In laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy procedure, a laparoscope, which is needle-shaped long equipment with a camera is used in the procedure. Laparoscopy is one of the minimally invasive procedures with good success rates worldwide. You need to get a Laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy if you have ovarian cysts or follicles in your ovary, due to the severe imbalance of hormones in the body, leading to Polycystic ovary syndrome. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a medical condition found in women of reproductive age. Women who are suffering from PCOS may have irregular menstrual periods due to the build-up of the excess male hormone, androgen. Due to this condition, small collections of fluid near the ovaries aggregate, leading to the formation of cysts or follicles, which cause blockage in releasing eggs at regular intervals.
The exact reason why women become a victim of Polycystic ovary syndrome is not entirely known. However, there are several risks factors that are known play significant role in the formation of the ovarian cyst. These include:
● Presence of excess insulin: Insulin is a hormone which is produced in the pancreas which enables the body cells to utilize various sugars from the carbohydrates in order to provide energy to meet your body's energy supply. Sometimes, the cell may not absorb on insulin to the desired function which makes insulin useless. Hence, it is not utilized causing the blood sugar levels in the body to rise. Excess insulin leads to the production of androgen, which is a male hormone, thereby hampering the ovulation cycle.
● Low-grade inflammation: Women who are suffering from PCOS may also suffer from increased levels of inflammation in their body. One of the major contributory factors to suffer inflammation is obesity. Various medical studies have shown that excess inflammation leads to higher androgen levels
● Heredity: Several medical studies also suggest that there are some particular genes, which if inherited, can lead to PCOS.
● Excess androgen: When the ovaries release excessive, abnormal level of androgen, hirsutism and acne can be caused.
Most common symptoms of PCOS that you indicate that you may need a Laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy
The most common PCOS symptoms are:
● Irregular periods: Women who have PCOS may not ovulate properly or at all as the ovarian cysts prevent the uterine lining from shedding every month. Women with PCOS may get less than eight periods a year.
● Heavy bleeding: Sometimes due to the cyst blockage, the uterine lining builds up over long time and cracks up altogether, resulting heavier than normal periods.
● Hair growth: This is the most common sign of PCOS. More than 70 percent of women are said to have hair growth on their face and body parts, like the back, belly or breasts. This condition of excess hair growth is called hirsutism.
● Acne: Production of male hormones in the body causes oily skin which leads to breakouts on the face, chest, and upper back.
● Weight gain: Another common symptom of PCOS. As much as 80 percent of women with PCOS are weight issues and are obese.
● Male-pattern baldness: Hair on the scalp starts getting thinner and to fall out.
● Darkening of the skin: Due to PCOS, there may be dark patches of skin which can form causing body creases on the neck, in the groin, and under the breasts.
● Headaches: Hormonal fluctuations in the body can trigger headaches in some women.
Not all women with ovarian cysts or who have Polycystic ovary syndrome are entirely eligible for Laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy as removal in this way may increase the risk of malignancy. You may not be a good candidate for a Laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy if:
● You are post-menopausal
● Cancer is suspected
● An ovarian cyst is very large
● Ovary is twisted
Before conducting Laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy, the doctor may first tests for the presence of ovarian cyst when he would examine the pelvic area. The doctor may conduct an ultrasound test to diagnose and confirm the presence of the ovarian cyst. After this, the doctor may additionally perform blood tests to check levels of several hormones in the body which may have caused PCOS including luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), oestradiol and testosterone. After the evaluations via tests, the doctor may proceed with Laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy. Laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy mostly removes only the cyst without causing damage or removal of ovaries. But in some cases, the cyst may be larger in size which may touch some parts of the ovary, in which case, the doctor removes all or part of the ovary. To get started with Laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy, the doctor will first administer general anaesthesia to get you to sleep when the surgery will be performed. After which the doctor would make a single, large incision in the abdominal wall. Since Laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy is a minimally invasive procedure, the doctor only makes one or two tiny (1/4 inch) cuts at the belly button from which the laparoscope, carrying the camera is inserted to view the where the cysts are. The doctor makes another slightly larger (3/4 inch) cut above the pubic bone. This larger incision made in the pubic bone is where the cyst is removed from. The doctor uses air to make more space between your abdominal wall and internal organs so that the cyst can be easily removed. During Laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy, the doctor places the cyst in a special bag to remove it from the body. Due to this, there is no fluid loss due to excessive spilling from the pelvic cavity. Any masses that may be cancerous are sent for analysis.
The risks of Laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy include:
● You may need an additional removal of the ovary
● If you face heavy bleeding during the surgery, you may require a blood transfusion
● Risk of the development of an infection of the bladder on the incision site
● Damage to organs like bladder, bowel, and ureters which surround the surgical area
● Another surgery to fight serious complications